"Speak softly and carry a big stick; you will go far." - West African Proverb


FCS Kali San Diego - Established September 25th, 2011


Glossary of Terms
Relating to the Filipino Martial Arts
As collected by Mark Cody

Every effort was made to make this list as accurate as possible, however there may be some discrepancies in terminology due to the vast number of dialects found in the Philippines as well as the number of FMA systems that exist today. Most of these terms are universal to the Filipino arts. Others are found only in certain FMA systems

Counting in Tagalog
Sero - zero
Isa – one
Dalawa – two
Tatlo – three
Apat – four
Lima – five
Anim – six
Pito – seven
Walo – eight
Siiyam – nine
Sampu - ten

Abang - to wait defensively
Abanico - fan; also spelled "abaniko"
Abanico sa Itaas  - upper flywheel
Abecedario - "ABC's"; the basics
Abierta - open position
Agaw - to grab, seize, disarm or take away
Agaw-Sandata - disarming & retrieval of the weapon
Aldabis - diagonal cut, strike or uppercut
Alpabeto - alphabet; the basics
Anim - six
Anino - shadow
Antas - level or degree
Antaw - long range
Apat - four
Araw - sun or day
Arnis - Harness; Northern Philippine martial art
Arnisador - stick fighter
Arnis de Mano - "Armor of the Hand"; system
Atras - retreat or backward
Avante - forward

Babag - worry; trouble
Bago - new or before
Bagong-Pasok – entry-level student
Bagsak - to drop; overhead strike with down weighing
Baguhan - beginner
Bahi - a Philippine hardwood used for sticks
Baitang - level or stages
Bakbakan - a rumble or free-for-all fight
Balaraw - dagger
Baligtad - reverse or inside out
Bali - break
Balik -return or retreat
Balisong - "butterfly knife"
Balitok - tumble
Banatan -full-contact fighting
Bansay-bansay - training or drills
Bantay - guard or watch
Bantay-Kamay - support or "alive" hand
Bara-bara - wild or formless technique
Baraw - dagger
Bartikal - vertical cut/strike
Basag- broken
Baston - stick
Bati-Bati - using the butt of the stick
Batikan - noteworthy; certified expert
Baywang - the hip
Bigay - to give
Bigay-bali - lock release technique
Bigay-galang - salutation
Bihasa - expert
Binahagi - cut into parts
Binali - break or reverse
Bisig - the arm
Bothan - Martial Arts school
Braso - the arm
Buah - combination of footwork and form; application of technique
Buhat - lift
Buhat Araw - an overhead strike
Bukas - open position
Buklis - upward figure 8
Bulusok - powerful overhead or diagonal strike
Buno - takedown or throws
Bunot - to draw a sword; to pluck out
Bunot Kaluban - an upward slash followed by a downward slash; a drawing and slashing technique

Caballero - techniques from Grandmaster Caballero
Carera - cycling movement or spin
Cadena de Mano - chain of hands
Centro - center
Centro Baston - holding the stick in the middle
Cerrada - close; closed fighting position
Cinco - five
Cinco Teros - "5 strikes"
Contra - counter
Contrada - opposite or counter
Corto - close range
Cruzada - cross-block and strike
Crossada - to cross
Cuatro- four

Daga - dagger or short stick
Dakop - to catch
Dakot - to scoop
Dalawa - two
Dalawampu - twenty
Dalawampu't Isa - twenty-one
Dalawang - double
Dakip - capture
Dakip-Diwa - mind-set
Damdam - feel or sensitivity
Damdam-Diwa - sensitivity; being aware
de Cadena - "the chain"
de Cuerdas - "to chord"; system
Defundo - stationary
Delikado - dangerous
Depensa - defense; person taking defensive role in training
Dib-dib - the chest
Diin - to put pressure on
Dikitan - very close or close quarters
Diwa - mind
Djuru - form
Doble - double
Doble Baston - double stick training
Doblete - double or repeat
Doce Pares - "12 pairs or 12 strikes"; system
Dos - two
Dos Labahas - two blades
Dos Manos - two hands
Dos Manos Largos - two hands with long stick
Dukop - to catch
Dukot - to snatch or seize unexpectedly
Dukot - to reach out
Dulo - the tip of the stick
Dumog - filipino grappling art
Dungab - to strike with the fist
Dungab - "heaven" or "hammer" grip
Duslak - thrust

Elastico - "rubber band art"; system
Enganyo - fake or feint
Entrada - entry
Equis - "X" or "X" shaped strike
Eskrima - "skirmish"; Filipino martial art
Eskrimador - stick fighter
Espada - sword or long stick
Espada y Daga - sword & dagger or long & short stick
Estrilla - star

No terms found

Galang - respect
Galing - skillfull
Gantihan - exchange of blows
Garote - stick; usually flat to simulate a blade
Garote'ng itak - flat stick
Gitna - center
Gunting - "scissors" or passing block with limb destruction
Guro - teacher

Habang - while; in the meantime
Hagad-Hubad - strikes & counters
Hagis - to throw; a throwing technique
Hagibis - whirlwind; throwing & grappling techniques
Hakbang - to step; footwork
Hakbang-Paiwas - full side step/step to avoid strike
Halo-Halo - combination; free flow sparring
Hanay - row or line
Han-ay - form
Handa - "Get ready!"
Hapos - strike or slash
Hapsanay - free sparring
Hatak - to pull
Hataw - a full power strike
Hawak - to hold
Hawak-Gitna - holding the stick in the middle
Hawak-Pakal - reverse or ice-pick grip
Hawak-Punyo - regular hold on weapon with punyo
Hawak-Sagad - regular grip with no punyo
Hawak-Saksak - regular or hammer grip
Hawak-Sandata - methods of holding a weapon
Hawak-Susi - reverse grip; holding at tip of stick
Higot - to tie
Hindi - no or negative
Hintay - wait or pause
Hiwa - to slash or cut
Hubad - to untie or undress; name of a flow drill
Hulagpos - to escape from capture or restraint

Ibaba - down or below
Ibabaw - above or on top of
Ikot - turn or about-face
Ikot-Hantaw - spinning strike
Ilag - to evade
Ilalim - under or underneath
Ilustrisimo - techniques from Grandmaster Anotio Ilustrisimo
Insayo'ng  - training
Ipit - to lock, trap or jam
Ipit-Hagis - a sacrifice throwing technique
Isang - single
Itaas - above, upper or to the front
Itak - long sword or bolo
Isa - one
Isa-pa - once more; again; one more time
Iwas - to avoid, dodge or duck

Juego Todo - anything goes or free-for-all fight

Kaayusan - order or organization
Kabakas - partner or assistant
Kadena - chain or series of movements
Kadyot - a shallow, snap thrust
Kalahati - half
Kalas - disengage, release or disarm
Kalas-Sandata - disarming technique
Kalasag - to shield
Kali - a southern Philippine martial art
Kalis - oldest of the Philippino style Kris swords; wavy back half, straight front half
Kaliwa - left side
Kamagoong - Philippine ironwood
Kamay -the hand
Kamayan - empty-hand training
Kamot - to punch; hand
Kanan - right side
Kapatid - brother
Kasa - to cock or chamber; to accept a challenge
Kasama - companion/friends
Karunungan - knowledge
Katapatan - loyalty
Katawan - body or torso
Katipunan - organization, association or brotherhood
Kenkoy - derogatory term used for unrealistic or impractical styles of fighting
Kilat - "Lightning Blow"
Kilos - movement
Kilos-Paa - footwork
Kina-Iya - natural
Kris - serpentine blade knife or sword
Kunsi - grappling techniques
Kuntao - "fist way"; system

Labaha - blade
Labahas - blades
Laban - to fight
Laban-Handa - ready-stance
Laban-Laro - combat drills or "play fights"
Labanang - to fight
Labanang-Dikitan - close quarters combat
Labanang-Malapitan - medium range combat
Labanang-Malayuan - long range combat
Laban-Paluan - free-fighting
Laban-Sanay - combat-skills training
Labas - the outside
Labing-Isa - eleven
Labo-labo - anything-goes fight
La Contra - to meet a strike
Lakan - an instructor rank equivalent to black belt
Langka - footwork
Lansi - to confuse or misdirect
Lansing-Tadyak - spinning thrust kick
Lansing-Sikad - spinning snap kick
Largo - long
Largo Mano - long range
Largos - long
Laro - to play
Laro-laro - give and take drills or training
Larong - to play
La Seguida - to follow a strike
Laslas - to cut to shreds
Lastiko - a style of arnis that emphasizes bobbing & weaving to avoid strikes
Lengua de Fuego - a fast series of thrust & slash techniques
Lihim - secret
Lihis - to the side or sidestep
Likos - twirl
Lima - five
Liyad - to lean away
Lock & Block - training drill from Serrada Eskrima
Loob - the inside
Lubud - to blend
Luma - old
Lusob - attack or partner taking offensive role in the training
Lutangto - float; the unique forward and backward footwork of the Ilustrisimo system

Mabilis - fast or speedy
Magaling - highly skilled
Magisa - alone
Mag-Olisi - one who practices stick fighting
Magulang - parents; shrewd or sly
Mahina - weak or of poor skills
Maharlika - noble or nobility
Mahusay - skillful
Malakas - strong, powerful or influential
Malapitan - near or close
Malayuan - far or distant
Mandirigma - warrior
Mano - hand
Mano y Mano - hand to hand
Marami - many or numerous
Maraming Salamat Po - "Many thanks"
Marunong - knowledgeable
Masipag - earnest or hard working
Masugid - dedicated or loyal
Matibay - strong, durable or lasting
Matira - to be left or to be the last
Matira Matibay - Survival of the Fittest
Matulis - sharply pointed; a style of bolo
Mayto - have
May-Alam - to posses the seeds of knowledge
Medio - medium range
Meteorica - meteoric strike from Grandmaster Caballero
Mukha - the face
Muli - again or one more time

Nakahanda - ready
Naka-Upo - seated
Nakaw - to steal
Ng - of

Olisi - stick
Olisi-hay - sparring with sticks
Opo - respectful form of saying "yes"
Oracion - a prayer for protection
Ordabis - backhand strike

Paa - foot
Paayon - going with the force
Paawas - to parry
Pababa - downward
Pag-Galang - salutation or show of respect
Pagsasanay - training
Pagsilang - birth or sunrise
Pagsisisi - atonement or repentance
Pahimsug - exercises or calisthenics
Pahisa - a slashing motion
Paikot - rotate
Paikot - circular strike
Paiwas - to avoid
Pakal - "ice pick" grip
Palad - palm of the hand
Palakas - strengthening
Palakas-Pulso – wrist strengthening exercises
Palis - sweep or sweeping parry
Palis-Patid - a sweeping throw
Palisut - to scoop
Palisut-sut - skipping strike
Palit - change or exchange
Palit-Kamay - change or exchange grip
Palitan - alternating
Palo - to strike
Paluan - exchange of strikes
Palusut - to pass through; technique of evading and passing through
Pama-a - footwork
Panabas - ax style weapon
Pananandata - study of the weapons of the Philippines
Panastas - to slash
Panata - a devotion
Pangamot - empty-hand defense
Pangandam - on-guard or ready position
Pang-Ikyas - evasion or dodge
Pangilog - disarming
Pang-Olisi - stick fighting
Pang-Ubot - hold or grip
Panibago - new or a revival
Pani-il - footwork
Panimban - balance
Panipis - to skim or cut thinly
Panukad - fighting stance
Parusa - punishment
Pasada de Contra - pass and hit
Pasok - to enter, inside or on target
Pasulong - forward
Pasungkit - to thrust upward
Pataas - upward
Patalim - dagger or blade weapon
Patalon - jumping or multi-level strikes
Patibong - to trap
Patid - to trip
Patusok - in a thrusting motion
Paulit-ulit - repetitive
Pa-upo - half side step/sitting down
Pauyon - go-with-the force technique
Payong - umbrella
Payong sa Itaas - upper umbrella block
Pekiti - close range
Piga - to squeeze or wring
Piglas - to struggle or resist
Pikon - one who is easily upset
Piktos - a snap strike
Pilay - sprain or dislocation; lame or crippled at the legs
Pinahandog - diagonal downward strike
Pinatag - horizontal strike
Pinasaka - diagonal upward strike
Pinasaka Tuhod - rising knee strike
Pinatindog - vertical downward strike
Pingga - a long staff fighting system
Pinid - closed position
Pintok - a wrist snap strike
Pinuti - long Visayan sword
Pito - seven
Planchada - a horizontal strike
Plansada - horizontal cut/strike
Pluma - pen
Po - a suffix denoting respect
Prakcion - to react faster than the opponent
Pukpok - to hammer or pummel
Pulso - pulse or wrist
Puluhan - handle or butt
Punong Guro - head teacher & founder of system
Punyo - butt of stick or any weapon

No terms found

Redonda - continuous double stick technique
Redondo - circular power strike
Retirada - to retreat
Rompida - an upward and downward slash
Ronda - circular movement of the hands or weapon
Ropillon - a double stick technique or movement

Sa - to or of
Sabayan - Simultaneous; to attack or counter at the same time
Sablay - Incomplete or imperfect; a low right to left horizontal - blow
Saboy - to throw or scatter; an upward right to left diagonal strike
Sadang - reverse position
Sagang - defense
Sagasa - to charge or to overrun
Sakay - to ride or go with the force
Sakay-Salag - eskrima sticky hands; to follow the motion of the blocked/ checked weapon or attack
Sakong - heel
Sakong-Palad - palm-heel
Saksak - to thrust
Sasak Hatak - a technique using fast withdrawal and twisting of the weapon to inflict a cut on the opponents checking or blocking hand
Salag - block or parry
Salagba - downward block
Salagbas - outside dodging and parrying
Salag-Bisig - forearm block
Salagsok - inside dodging and parrying
Salagtas - upward block
Salakay - to charge or attack
Salamat - to thank
Salamin - mirror or reaction drill
Salisi - opposing or opposite direction
Salok - an upward strike with the edge or point
Saltik - a snap strike
Salubong - to meet head-on
Sama - to join or go with
Sambut - combination of footwork & form; application of technique
Sampu - ten
Sanay - training or exposure
Sandata - weapon
Sangga - to block
Saplet - quick disarm
Sawali - interwoven slats of wood used for walls
Serada - closed
Serrada - close quarters or "closing"
Sibat - staff
Sibog - retreat or backward
Sikad - sidekick
Sikad-Gilid - side snap kick
Sikad-Hataw - snap roundhouse kick
Sikad-Sungkite - snap hook kick
Sikad-Tusok - front snap kick
Sikaran - a Philippine martial art emphasizing kicking skills
Siklod - to kiss the hand of an elder; a wrist lock
Siklod Bangga - a wrist lock that uses the shoulder as a leverage point
Sikmura - solar plexus
Siko - the elbow
Sikot - push kick
Sikwat - to pry; an upward strike with the punyo
Sikwat-Siko - a come-along lock with the elbow as the primary lock or center of pressure
Silat - to outmaneuver or overpower; an Indonesian martial art
Silak - open-hand system used against a blade (Sayoc Kali)
Sinawalli - to weave; a continuous double stick technique
Sinigurato - make doubly sure; a follow-up trapping or jamming technique (Lameco Eskrima)
Sipa - to kick; also a game
Sipalit - a training drill for alternating kicks
Sipang-Hataw - roundhouse kick
Siyam - nine
Sogo - fingertip thrust
Solo - single
Songab - finger jab
Songkiti - a hooking movement used to parry or thrust
Suklian - an exchange of strikes
Suko - to surrender or give-up
Sulod - to enter
Sulong - to go forward or go ahead
Suliwa - pass or deflect
Sumbalik - counter
Sumbrada - upper umbrella block; name of a flow drill
Sumpa - a vow or oath
Sungkite - a technique that emphasizes thrusts
Sundot - a jab or quick thrust
Suntok - to punch
Suplete - quick disarm
Suwag - head-butt
Suyop - a go with the force technique

Tabas Talahib - a horizontal strike
Tabak-Toyok - nunchaku
Tadtad - full of or multiples of
Tadyak - thrust kick
Tadyak-Gilid - side thrust kick
Tadyak-Sakong - back thrust kick
Tadyak-Tusok - front thrust kick
Taga - to strike or cut
Tagang Alanganin - an outward horizontal strike aimed at the upper torso region
Tagang Buhat Araw - an overhead strike aimed at the top of the head
Tagang Pasumala - primarily a parry, a sweeping upward diagonal strike used to deflect a weapon
Tagang San Miguel - a diagonal downward and inward strike aimed at the upper torso
Tagapagsanay - trainer or assistant instructor
Tagapagturo - senior assistant instructor
Tala - star
Talang Bartikal - vertical block
Talas - sharp or to sharpen
Talas Damdam - sensitivity training
Tapa - to step on the foot
Tapi - to parry or deflect
Tapik - to nudge, defelct or parry
Tapi-on - to block, parry, deflect or check
Tapi-Tapi - checking; a series of parries & blocks
Tapos - finished or the end
Tatlo - three
Tatlumpu - thirty
Tatlumpu't Isa - thirty-one
Tatsulok - triangle
Taub - facing downward
Tayo - stance
Teka - wait, halt or pause
Tiempo - timing
Tigil - stop or cease
Tigpas - a horizontal strike directed at the knees
Tihaya - facing upward
Tiniklink - footwork drill
Tisod - to stumble
Totsada - to thrust
Totsar - to thrust
Trancada - to lock or locks
Tuhod - the knee
Tulisan - the knife-fighting art of Kali Illustrisimo
Tuloy-tuloy - continuous
Tunga-tunga - medium range
Tuo - to the right
Tusok - to thrust
Tuyok - cycling movement or to spin

Ulo - the head
Upo - seat

No terms found

Wala - to the left; nothing; lost
Walis - to sweep
Walo - eight
Warwok - a weapon hand capture that rebounds the weapon into the attackers body
Witik - wrist snap strike

No terms found

Yabag - the sound of footsteps
Yabang - show-off
Yakap - hug, hold, embrace or clinch
Yantoc - rattan stick
Yukbo - salutation
Yuko - to duck or bow

No terms found